In recent years, with the rapid development of information technology and intelligent technology, the application of laser engraving technology in various fields of optics, mechanics and computers has received more and more attention in various industries. It uses a high-energy-density laser beam to illuminate the surface of the object being processed to create a desired pattern for engraving. This paper first compares the optical working principle of traditional laser engraving and energy transmission fiber laser engraving, introduces the structure and workflow of laser engraving system, and then elaborates on the characteristics and working principle of laser and energy transmission fiber in this system. Secondly, the article designs the control system with S3C2440 microprocessor as the core, analyzes its hardware structure and interface circuit, and uses microprocessor to replace the personal computer to control the stepping motor, so that the engraving system is miniaturized. This is a major innovation in this article. Thirdly, the article analyzes the structure and working process of the stepper motor of the core execution component of the engraving system. On this basis, further analysis of S3C2440 control chip control of stepper motor, as well as programming and debugging of U-BOOT based on ADS1.2 environment, and design of stepper motor based on S3C2440 embedded system driver. Finally, aiming at the problem of single engraving image in the past, this paper proposes an image processing method based on multi-level gray image laser engraving. By analyzing the gray level of gray image, the eight-level gray image conforming to laser engraving requirements is finally generated. The method is simple and easy to implement, and at the same time, a multi-level grayscale engraving scanning method is proposed, which overcomes the precision error caused by frequent changes of the laser power in the original scanning mode, and is more suitable for more. Engraving of grayscale images.